Data sharing FAQs
Are you submitting your paper to a Taylor & Francis journal, and is there a data set associated with your work? Check out our overview of data sharing policies at Taylor & Francis, and find answers to some of the most common questions below.
What is a data availability statement?
These statements provide information on where and under what conditions the data directly supporting the publication can be accessed. The aim of such statements is to make data more findable and discoverable.
You can find template data availability statements here.
Where can I deposit data?
Authors can choose from a large number of data repositories. To help you decide where to deposit your data, we’ve prepared some information here.
What data should be shared?
The minimum data set is the data needed for independent verification of research results. With the basic policy, it’s up to the author to determine the minimum data set to be shared. Some authors might choose to share the full raw data, while others will select a manipulated sub-set of the data that underlies the analysis in the specific article to be published.
What is a DOI, reserved DOI or persistent identifier?
A DOI is a digital object identifier, and is one of a number of persistent identifiers that a data repository might use to give your data a permanent address. Persistent identifiers are important because they remain constant, even if the actual location of a digital object moves. While a URL may change, a persistent identifier will continue to resolve to the new location.
Will the data I share be peer reviewed?
Currently, data will not be peer reviewed as part of our policies. The soundness of any data set associated with an article is solely the responsibility of the person who generated the data. However, the link to the data will be made available to peer reviewers upon request and they will be able to view the data, should they wish to do so.
Where a journal applies a double-blind peer review process, a link will be shared only in instances where the relevant data repository can provide a review link that preserves anonymity, i.e. blinds the details of the author.
What if I can’t or don’t want to share my data?
This depends on the data policy of the journal you’re submitting to. The basic data sharing policy encourages data sharing, whereas according to the open and fully fair data sharing policy, authors must deposit their data. See the table here for full details of the data sharing policies that Taylor & Francis offers.
All our policies allow exceptions where data sharing violates protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns. If you have concerns about sharing your data, please contact us at email@example.com, stipulating the journal you wish to submit to and a summary of your concerns.
At what point during submission do I need to deposit my data set?
Ideally, you should deposit your data prior to submission so that during submission you can provide the persistent identifier and an accurate data availability statement. Many repositories, and all recognized generalist repositories, will allow you to deposit your data without making it immediately visible to the public. Your data will sit in a repository until the paper associated with it is published, when it will then be released.
What does it mean for a data set to be associated with my paper?
If you are choosing to share data or are depositing your data in a repository to comply with a journal or funder policy, there is a data set associated with your paper. When submitting your article for consideration, please provide the persistent identifier for your data set when prompted to do so.
Will my article be rejected if I don’t deposit data when a data sharing policy applies?
Most of our journals currently apply a basic data sharing policy that gives authors an opportunity to share data, but does not mandate open data. Where a journal applies a more progressive data sharing policy, authors are expected to comply with this policy and risk rejection should they refuse to comply.
If you have concerns about sharing your data, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org, stating the journal you wish to submit to and a summary of your concerns. You may be eligible for an exception.
What license or copyright will be applied to my data?
Our publicly available data sharing policy and open data policy require authors to make their data available under a liberal license that provides open access and allows for re-use by any third party. When submitting to a journal that applies one of these policies, be sure to select an appropriate license if your repository offers you a choice.
For other data policies, the choice of license is up to the author, but may be restricted by the choice of licenses offered by the selected data repository. We highly encourage open licenses that allow for re-use.
How should I cite data?
Instructions on how to cite data will be linked to from the journal’s Instructions for Authors. Our instructions include samples for the referencing systems applied by Taylor & Francis titles.
In short, authors should include the tag “[dataset]” within the reference citation, a persistent identifier (e.g. DOI) where this is available, the location of the data and the name(s) of the individual(s) responsible for the creation of the data. The recommended formats for data citation in our instructions adhere to the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles.
Read further guidance on citing data here.
What if someone uses my data and doesn’t give me any credit for it?
The extent to which a third party must recognize and attribute you when re-using your data is dependent upon the license under which the data has been published. The CC0 license, for example, does not legally require attribution, while the CCBY license does. However, within academic research it is standard practice to attribute the work of others.
If you discover that someone has re-used your data without giving you credit, you should contact the individual and request that they do so. If the individual refuses to credit your work, this might warrant further action, such as contacting the individual’s employer.
Your data repository may provide helpful information on how to proceed in such situations.
What about data that could compromise the anonymity of patients?
Authors should only share data where it is ethically correct to do so, or under conditions by which they have prepared a dataset in order to protect subjects. The basic data sharing policy specifically states that authors are encouraged to share data, but only where this does not violate protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns.
Furthermore, all our other data sharing policies allow exceptions where data sharing violates protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns.
What counts as violating protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns?
Research involving information and/or samples from human participants must ensure that data is managed and shared in such a way as to safeguard the confidentiality and anonymity of participants, and is consistent with the terms of consent signed by participants. Additional steps may need to be taken before such data can be shared, and in some instances data cannot be shared publicly due to risk of violating privacy. More information about protection of human subjects may be provided via ethics committees that are relevant for your location or subject area.
Who is responsible for the integrity of the materials uploaded?
As stated in the ‘Data Sharing Policy’ information listed in the journal’s Instructions for Authors, responsibility for the soundness of the research data rests solely with the individual/group that produced the data.
If I deposit my data, can I remove it at a later date?
There may be reasons why data should be removed after having been published. You might have data that can be held legally for a specific period before you must destroy it, or errors might be detected, to name just a couple of cases.
Data repositories have established practices for updating versions of data if you need to correct them, and for tagging metadata and landing pages for data sets that have been removed. Please check the website of your chosen repository for further information.
How will my data be linked to my paper?
By citing your data set, providing the persistent identifier and including a data availability statement, you can ensure that your paper links to the data set underlying your analysis. Similarly, it is important that your data links back to your paper. This will improve the usability of your data, and should increase the discoverability of your paper and potentially even increase citations. In some cases, the metadata associated with your data set will be updated with the article DOI upon its publication, but this is not always the case. We highly encourage authors to update the information supplied to their data repository with the article DOI as soon as they are aware of the DOI.
What is metadata and what information should go into it?
Metadata is a layer of information that is associated with an object such as your published paper or a data set you have deposited. This data can contain descriptive information in addition to administrative and structural information. Typical information that your data set should have associated with it are: the date it was created, file type and format, creator of the data, key words, location, a description of the data and how it was generated, relationships to other digital objects such as the DOI of the article in which the data is described and analyzed, version information, relationships to other digital objects, and other information that might be relevant to your subject area. For further information about metadata, and why and how rich metadata can improve the quality of your data, see The FAIR Data Principles.
Which journals adopt the basic policy?
Many our journals adopt the basic data sharing policy. We encourage you to check the Instructions for Authors of the journal you’re submitting to for the most up to date information.
How can I check whether I need to share data?
You’ll need to check the Instructions for Authors of the journal you’re submitting to which will specify the data policy for the journal, and how you’ll need to handle the data. If there is no data policy specified, then the journal does not have a data policy.
Many funders have policies around data sharing too, so make sure you check your funder’s policy, when applicable. You can check research funders’ open access and data policies using this handy Sherpa-Juliet tool. If the data sharing policy for the funder and journal differ, you’ll need to follow the more progressive policy, i.e. the policy that encourages a greater level of data sharing.
I have a question relating to data sharing, who can I get in touch with?
If you have a question relating to sharing data that you can’t find the answer to here, please contact: email@example.com.