Post-publication notices to ensure the accuracy of the scholarly record
A Correction notice will be issued when it is necessary to correct an error or omission, where the interpretation of the article may be impacted but the scholarly integrity or original findings remains intact.
A correction notice, where possible, should always be written and approved by all authors of the original article. On very rare occasions where there is a need to correct an error made in the publication process, the journal may be required to issue a correction without the authors’ direct input. However, should this occur, the journal will make best efforts to notify the authors.
Please note that correction requests may be subject to full review, and if queries are raised, you may be expected to supply further information before the correction is approved.
Taylor & Francis distinguishes between major and minor errors. For correction notices, major errors or omissions are considered changes that impact the interpretation of the article, but the overall scholarly integrity remains intact. Minor errors are considered errors or omissions that do not impact the reliability of, or the readers’ understanding of, the interpretation of the article.
Read our reference guide to the type of changes Taylor & Francis will correct using a correction notice.
A Retraction will be issued where a major error (e.g., in the methods or analysis) invalidates the conclusions in the article, or where it appears research or publication misconduct has taken place (e.g., research without required ethical approvals, fabricated data, manipulated images, plagiarism, duplicate publication, etc.).
The decision to retract an article will be made in accordance with both Taylor & Francis policies and COPE guidelines. The decision will follow a full investigation by Taylor & Francis editorial staff in collaboration with the journal’s editorial team. Authors and institutions may request a retraction of their articles if they believe their reasons meet the criteria for retraction.
Retractions are issued to correct the scholarly record and should not be interpreted as punishments for the authors.
The COPE guidance can be found here.
Retraction will be considered in cases where:
There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication or image manipulation) or honest error (e.g., miscalculation or experimental error).
The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper referencing, permission, or justification (e.g., cases of redundant or duplicate publication).
The research constitutes plagiarism.
The Editor no longer has confidence in the validity or integrity of the article.
There is evidence or concerns of authorship for sale.
Citation manipulation is evident within the published paper
There is evidence of compromised peer review or systematic manipulation.
There is evidence of unethical research, or there is evidence of a breach of editorial policies.
The authors have deliberately submitted fraudulent or inaccurate information, or breached a warranty provided in the Author Publishing Agreement (APA).
Where the decision has been taken to retract an article, Taylor & Francis will:
Add a “retracted” watermark to the published Version of Record of the article.
Issue a separate retraction statement, titled ‘Retraction: [article title]’, that will be linked to the retracted article on Taylor & Francis Online.
Paginate and make available the retraction statement in the online issue of the journal.
Expressions of concern
In some cases, an Expression of Concern may be considered where concerns of a serious nature have been raised (e.g., research or publication misconduct), but where the outcome of the investigation is inconclusive or where due to various complexities, the investigation will not be completed for a considerable time. This could be due to ongoing institutional investigations or other circumstances outside of the journal’s control.
When the investigation has been completed, a Retraction or Correction notice may follow the Expression of Concern alongside the original article. All will remain part of the permanent publication record.
Expressions of Concern notices will be considered in cases where:
There is inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors, but the nature of the concerns warrants notifying the readers.
There are well-founded concerns that the findings are unreliable or that misconduct may have occurred, but there is limited cooperation from the authors’ institution(s) in investigating the concerns raised.
There is an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication that has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
An investigation is underway, but a resolution will not be available for a considerable time, and the nature of the concerns warrant notifying the readers.
The Expression of Concern will be linked back to the published article it relates to.
An Article Removal will be issued in rare circumstances where the problems cannot be addressed through a Retraction or Correction notice. Taylor & Francis will consider removal of a published article in very limited circumstances where:
The article contains content that could pose a serious risk of harm if acted upon or followed.
The article contains content which violates the rights to privacy of a study participant.
The article is defamatory or infringes other legal rights.
An article is subject to a court order.
In the case of an article being removed from Taylor & Francis Online, a removal notice will be issued in its place.