Post-publication notices to ensure the integrity of the scholarly record
A correction notice will be issued when it is necessary to correct an error or omission which can impact the interpretation of the article, but where the scholarly integrity of the article remains intact. Examples include mislabeling of a figure, missing key information on funding or competing interests of the authors.
Taylor & Francis distinguishes between major and minor errors. For correction notices, major errors or omissions are considered to be any changes which impacts the interpretation of the article, but where the scholarly integrity of the article remains intact.
Read our reference guide to the types of changes Taylor & Francis will correct, using a correction notice.
A retraction notice will be issued where a major error (e.g. in the analysis or methods) invalidates the conclusions in the article, or where research misconduct or publication misconduct has taken place (e.g. research without required ethical approvals, fabricated data, manipulated images, plagiarism, duplicate publication etc.). The decision to issue a retraction for an article will be made in accordance with COPE guidelines, and will involve an investigation by Taylor & Francis editorial staff in collaboration with the editor. Authors and institutions may request a retraction of their articles if their reasons meet the criteria for retraction.
The COPE retraction guidelines can be found on the COPE website.
Retraction will be considered:
If there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication or image manipulation) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
If the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross referencing, permission or justification (e.g. cases of redundant publication or duplicate publication).
If the research constitutes plagiarism.
Where there is evidence of fraudulent authorship.
Where there is evidence of compromised peer review.
If there is evidence of unethical research.
Where the decision has been taken to retract an article Taylor & Francis will:
Add a “retracted” watermark to the published Version of Record of the article.
Issue a separate retraction statement, titled ‘Retraction: [article title]’, that will be linked to the retracted article on Taylor & Francis Online.
Paginate and make available the retraction statement in the online issue of the journal.
Expressions of concern
In some cases, an Expression of Concern notice may be considered where concerns of a major nature have been raised (e.g. serious research or publication misconduct), but where the outcome of the investigation is inconclusive or where due to various complexities the investigation will not be complete for a considerable time.
When the investigation has been completed a Retraction or Correction notice may follow the Expression of Concern, and alongside the original article, all will remain part of the permanent published record.
Publication of an expression of concern notice will be considered if:
There is inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors, but the nature of the concerns warrant notifying the readers.
There are well-founded concerns that the findings are unreliable or that misconduct may have occurred, but there is limited cooperation from the authors’ institution(s) in investigating the concerns raised.
There is an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication that has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
An investigation is underway, but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time and the nature of the concerns warrant notifying the readers.
The expression of concern will be linked back to the published article it relates to.
An article removal will be issued in rare circumstances where the problems are very serious in nature and cannot be addressed by a Retraction or Correction notice. Taylor & Francis will consider removal of a published article from Taylor & Francis journals in very limited circumstances such as:
If the article contains content that could pose a serious risk if followed or acted upon.
If the article contains content which violates the rights to privacy of a study participant.
If the article is defamatory or infringes other legal rights.
If an article is subject to a court order.
In case of an article being removed from Taylor & Francis Online, a removal notice will be issued in its place.