Corrections, retractions and updates after publication

Taylor & Francis journal article correction and retraction policy

Sometimes after an article has been published it may be necessary to make a change to the Version of Record. This change will be made after careful consideration by the journal’s editorial team, with support from Taylor & Francis staff to make sure any necessary changes are done in accordance with both Taylor & Francis policies and guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Aside from cases where a minor error is concerned, any necessary changes will be accompanied by a post-publication notice, which will be permanently linked to the original article. These changes can be in the form of a Correction notice, an Expression of Concern, a Retraction, and in rare circumstances, a Removal.

The purpose of linking post-publication notices to the original article is to provide transparency around any changes and to ensure the integrity of the scholarly record. Note that all post-publication notices are free to access from the point of publication.

Read on for our full policy on corrections, retractions, and updates to published articles.

Version of Record

Each article published by Taylor & Francis journals, or journals published by us on behalf of a scholarly society, either in the print issue or online, constitutes the Version of Record (VoR): the final, definitive, and citable version in the scholarly record.

The VoR includes:

  1. The article revised and accepted following peer review, in its final form, including the abstract, text, references, bibliography, and all accompanying tables, illustrations, data.

  2. Any supplemental material.

Recognizing a published article as the VoR helps to provide further assurance that it is accurate, complete, and citable. Wherever possible it is our policy to maintain the integrity of the VoR in accordance with STM Association guidelines:

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“Articles that have been published as the version-of-record should remain extant, exact, and unaltered to the maximum extent possible”

What should I do if my article contains an error?

Authors should notify us as soon as possible if they find errors in their published article, especially errors that could affect the interpretation of data or reliability of information presented. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure consensus has been reached between all listed co-authors prior to requesting any corrections to an article.

If, after reading the guidance, you believe a correction is necessary for your article, please contact the journal’s Production Editor, or contact us.

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Post-publication notices to ensure the accuracy of the scholarly record

Correction notice

A Correction notice will be issued when it is necessary to correct an error or omission, where the interpretation of the article may be impacted but the scholarly integrity or original findings remains intact.

A correction notice, where possible, should always be written and approved by all authors of the original article. On very rare occasions where there is a need to correct an error made in the publication process, the journal may be required to issue a correction without the authors’ direct input. However, should this occur, the journal will make best efforts to notify the authors.

Please note that correction requests may be subject to full review, and if queries are raised, you may be expected to supply further information before the correction is approved.

Taylor & Francis distinguishes between major and minor errors. For correction notices, major errors or omissions are considered changes that impact the interpretation of the article, but the overall scholarly integrity remains intact. Minor errors are considered errors or omissions that do not impact the reliability of, or the readers’ understanding of, the interpretation of the article.

  • Major errors are always accompanied by a separate correction notice. The correction notice should provide clear details of the error and the changes that have been made to the Version of Record. Under these circumstances, Taylor & Francis will:

  • Correct the online article.

  • Issue a separate correction notice electronically linked back to the corrected version.

  • Add a footnote to the article displaying the electronic link to the correction notice.

  • Paginate and make available the correction notice in the online issue of the journal.

  • Make the correction notice free to view.

  • Minor errors may not be accompanied by a separate correction notice. Instead, a footnote will be added to the article detailing to the reader that the article has been corrected.

  • Concerns regarding the integrity of a published article should be raised via email to the Editor or via the Publisher.

Read our reference guide to the type of changes Taylor & Francis will correct using a correction notice.


A Retraction will be issued where a major error (e.g., in the methods or analysis) invalidates the conclusions in the article, or where it appears research or publication misconduct has taken place (e.g., research without required ethical approvals, fabricated data, manipulated images, plagiarism, duplicate publication, etc.).

The decision to retract an article will be made in accordance with both Taylor & Francis policies and COPE guidelines. The decision will follow a full investigation by Taylor & Francis editorial staff in collaboration with the journal’s editorial team. Authors and institutions may request a retraction of their articles if they believe their reasons meet the criteria for retraction.

Retractions are issued to correct the scholarly record and should not be interpreted as punishments for the authors.

The COPE guidance can be found here.

Retraction will be considered in cases where:

  • There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication or image manipulation) or honest error (e.g., miscalculation or experimental error).

  • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper referencing, permission, or justification (e.g., cases of redundant or duplicate publication).

  • The research constitutes plagiarism.

  • The Editor no longer has confidence in the validity or integrity of the article.

  • There is evidence or concerns of authorship for sale.

  • Citation manipulation is evident within the published paper

  • There is evidence of compromised peer review or systematic manipulation.

  • There is evidence of unethical research, or there is evidence of a breach of editorial policies.

  • The authors have deliberately submitted fraudulent or inaccurate information, or breached a warranty provided in the Author Publishing Agreement (APA).

Where the decision has been taken to retract an article, Taylor & Francis will:

  • Add a “retracted” watermark to the published Version of Record of the article.

  • Issue a separate retraction statement, titled ‘Retraction: [article title]’, that will be linked to the retracted article on Taylor & Francis Online.

  • Paginate and make available the retraction statement in the online issue of the journal.

Expressions of concern

In some cases, an Expression of Concern may be considered where concerns of a serious nature have been raised (e.g., research or publication misconduct), but where the outcome of the investigation is inconclusive or where due to various complexities, the investigation will not be completed for a considerable time. This could be due to ongoing institutional investigations or other circumstances outside of the journal’s control.

When the investigation has been completed, a Retraction or Correction notice may follow the Expression of Concern alongside the original article. All will remain part of the permanent publication record.

Expressions of Concern notices will be considered in cases where:

  • There is inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors, but the nature of the concerns warrants notifying the readers.

  • There are well-founded concerns that the findings are unreliable or that misconduct may have occurred, but there is limited cooperation from the authors’ institution(s) in investigating the concerns raised.

  • There is an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication that has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.

  • An investigation is underway, but a resolution will not be available for a considerable time, and the nature of the concerns warrant notifying the readers.

The Expression of Concern will be linked back to the published article it relates to.

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Article removal

An Article Removal will be issued in rare circumstances where the problems cannot be addressed through a Retraction or Correction notice. Taylor & Francis will consider removal of a published article in very limited circumstances where:

  • The article contains content that could pose a serious risk of harm if acted upon or followed.

  • The article contains content which violates the rights to privacy of a study participant.

  • The article is defamatory or infringes other legal rights.

  • An article is subject to a court order.

In the case of an article being removed from Taylor & Francis Online, a removal notice will be issued in its place.

Updates and scholarly discussion on published articles


An addendum is a notification of an addition of information to an article.

Addenda do not contradict the original publication and are not used to fix errors (for which a Correction notice will be published), but if the author needs to update or add some key information then, this can be published as an addendum.

Addenda may be peer reviewed, according to journal policy, and are normally subject to oversight by the editors of the journal.

  • All addenda are electronically linked to the published article to which they relate.

Comment (including response and rejoinder correspondence)

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Comments are short articles which outline an observation on a published article. In cases where a comment on a published article is submitted to the journal editor, it may be subject to peer review. The comment will be shared with the authors of the published article, who are invited to submit a response.

This author response again may be subject to peer review, and will be shared with the commentator, who may be invited to submit a rejoinder. The rejoinder may be subject to peer review and shared with the authors of the published article. No further correspondence will be considered for publication. The editor may decide to reject correspondence at any point before the comment, response and rejoinder are finalized.

  • All published comments, responses, and rejoinders are linked to the published article to which they relate.

Pop-up notifications

If deemed necessary by the Publishing Ethics & Integrity team, a pop-up notification may be temporarily added to the online version of an article to inform readers an article is under investigation. This is not a permanent note (unlike an Expression of Concern, Correction, or Retraction notice), but is to indicate an investigation is in progress. Please note, these are not added to every article under investigation.

Updating and retracting articles on F1000Research

On F1000Research, authors can revise, change, and update their articles by publishing new versions, which are added to the original article’s history on the platform. The versioning system is user-friendly and intuitive, with new versions (and their peer reviews) clearly linked and easily navigable from earlier versions. Authors can summarize changes in the ‘Amendments’ section at the start of a new version.

As stated in the F1000Research Retraction policy, articles may be retracted from F1000Research for several reasons, including research misconduct and duplicate publication, but the retracted article will usually remain on the site. Retracted articles are not ‘unpublished’ or ‘withdrawn’ so that they can be published elsewhere; usually the reasons for the retraction are so serious that the whole study, or large parts of it, are not appropriate for inclusion in the scientific literature anywhere.

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