Research should be communicated in a way that supports verification and reproducibility, and as such we encourage authors to provide comprehensive descriptions of their research rationale, protocol, methodology, and analysis.
To support clear and comprehensive communication of research, a number of study-design specific consensus-based reporting guidelines have been developed. We recommend authors to use these as guidance prior to submitting their manuscript.
A list of some key reporting guidelines for specific types of studies across different disciplines are listed below:
Full information on the statistical methods and measures used in the research must be included within the manuscript. Authors are encouraged to consult the SAMPL guidelines. Manuscripts may be sent for specialist statistical review if considered necessary.
Due to concerns regarding cross-contamination and misidentification, if human cell lines are used in a study, authors are strongly encouraged to include the following information in their manuscript:
Standardized gene nomenclature should be used throughout the manuscript. Human gene symbols and names can be found in the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) database. Alternative gene aliases that are commonly used may also be reported, but should not be used alone in place of the HGNC symbol.
For the reporting of sequence variants authors are strongly encouraged to consult the recommendations of the Human Variome Project Consortium for describing sequence variants (Human Genome Variation Society) and phenotypes (Human Phenotype Ontology).
Standardized nomenclature for organisms should be used throughout the manuscript, which should be in accordance with International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) and the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
Read our guide to registering new names in biological databases.
Standardized nomenclature for allergenic proteins should be used throughout the manuscript, which should be in accordance with the nomenclature approved by World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee.
The synthesis of all new compounds must be described in detail, and information to verify the identity and purity should be included. Nomenclature and abbreviations should follow the recommendations from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).