Using third-party material in your article
As a warranty in the Journal Author Publishing Agreement you make with us, you must obtain the necessary written permission to include material in your article that is owned and held in copyright by a third party, including – but not limited to – any proprietary text, illustration, table, or other material, including data, audio, video, film stills, screenshots, musical notation, and any supplemental material.
It is the custom and practice in academic publishing that the reproduction of short extracts of text and some other types of material may be permitted on a limited basis for the purposes of criticism and review without securing formal permission, on the basis that:
- the purpose of quotation or use is objective and evidenced scholarly criticism or review (not merely illustration);
- a quotation is reproduced accurately, either within quotation marks or as displayed text;
- full attribution is given.
However, a quotation from a song lyric or a poem, whether used as an epigraph or within the text, will always require written permission from a copyright holder.
Our publishing agreement with you requires that you must obtain written permission to reproduce any content, especially image content, in your article, when that content is owned and held in copyright by a third party. You should also acknowledge and attribute the third party in your article. When content is not copyrighted, that is, when it is held in the public domain, you must still attribute it properly.
Note also that the International Association of Science, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM) Permissions Agreement, to which Taylor & Francis is a signatory, allows for reproduction without securing formal permission by signatory participants of limited portions of text and illustrations at the individual article level. For details and conditions, see http://www.stm-assoc.org/permissions-guidelines/
When you are asking permission to reproduce any kind of third-party material from rightsholders, please ask for the following:
- non-exclusive rights to reproduce the item within your article in [Journal Name] targeted at a specialist academic readership with a defined circulation;
- print and electronic rights for the full term of copyright and any extensions of copyright to facilitate reproduction of the material in the journal’s print and online editions – we cannot publish third-party material using a time-limited license;
- worldwide English-language distribution rights;
- if an image, 300 dpi minimum resolution. (Please refer to specific instructions for authors for more details.)
If you are not sure if permission is needed, please contact us and we can help you. You will need to allow several weeks or even months for permission requests, so it is advisable to begin this process as early as possible. Please also refer to our FAQs below, which include guidance on special cases.
Frequently asked questions
Do I need permission to reproduce text quotations from other sources?
It is the custom and practice in academic publishing that short extracts of text may be reproduced without formal permission, on the basis that:
the purpose of quotation is objective and evidenced scholarly criticism;
the quotation is reproduced accurately, either within quotation (“ ”) marks or as displayed (indented) text;
full attribution is given.
As an author, you are required to secure permission to reproduce any proprietary material, including text, where the above exceptions do not apply (e.g. for illustrative purposes, a poem or song in full).
Do I need permission even if I have redrawn figures?
Redrawn versions of copyrighted illustrative material fall within the scope of “derivative copyright”. You should check who owns the copyright for the original figure, and request permission to reuse the material. You may need to submit your own redrawn figure so that the rightsholder can confirm its accuracy.
Do I need permission if I have reused information and data from a table?
If you use a table that has been published in a previous work, or if you faithfully reproduce a section or piece of a table from a previous work, then you should check who owns the copyright for the original table and seek permission to reuse the data/material.
If you have taken some data or information from a table in an original work and then used that data in conjunction with your own in a new table (as opposed to using the original table itself), then you do not need to seek permission for the use of the original table (as it is not strictly derivative use), but you must add the citation reference to the caption for the new table, acknowledging that the table includes data and figures previously presented in [source] and provide the citation in the references.
Do I need permission if I use an image from the Internet?
Yes, you will need to find out the status of the image and find out who owns the copyright (this may be the photographer, artist, agency, museum, or library). You will then need to get permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the image in a journal article.
Taylor & Francis urge authors to exercise caution with any image downloaded from the Internet, e.g. from Wikipedia, Google, or Facebook, where images are frequently posted without the knowledge or permission of the copyright holder, and are quickly removed if the copyright holder raises an objection.
Do I need permission to reproduce the cover image of a book as part of a book review?
Please be aware that on some occasions the book cover may have additional third-party rights attached for images contained with it and thus the permissions for reuse may be restricted. In addition, we recommend that the image used be of a high quality/resolution and that this image be sought directly from the book publisher when seeking permission to use the cover image.
Do I need permission if I use material from my own work?
You will need to check who owns the copyright of the original work, and ask for permission to reuse the material. The original publisher will usually give you permission to reproduce your own work free of charge. If a license was agreed with the publisher in the first instance then permission will again be granted for free.
Do I need permission if I work for the company whose image I am using?
Yes, you will need to check who owns the copyright (this may be the publisher, author, institution, or organization), and ask for permission to reuse the material.
Do I need permission of people if I have photographed them to illustrate my article?
Generally, yes: you will need to warrant to us that any person – a patient, service user, or participant (or that person’s parent or legal guardian) in any research or clinical experiment or study who is described in your article has given written consent to the inclusion of material, text, or image, pertaining to themselves, and that they acknowledge that they cannot be identified via the article and that you have anonymized them and that you do not identify them in any way, unless with their permission. Images of people taken at public events may not require formal permission, assuming photography was explicitly permitted.
Do I need permission to use poems and songs?
Yes, permission should always be obtained. Please be aware that some poets will not allow changes to the layout of the poem or allow you to use a small number of lines. Poem fees are normally charged per line.
With song lyrics you should be aware that even if you only use one line you may be charged the same price as you would for the complete song. Rightsholders for song lyrics require people intending to reproduce lyrics to apply for permission for each reuse, and a fee may be charged.
As an author, can I use screenshots or grabs of film or video in my article or take such images from the Internet?
Film stills, film clips, and extracts of video should be used specifically within the context of the article for criticism or review. Each clip should be no longer than is necessary to illustrate the point made in the text. You should always provide full credits for the source of every image or clip.
We urge caution when sourcing images from the Internet, as these may have been posted without the permission of the rightsholder.
Do I need permission to use very old paintings?
Yes. Although the artefact itself may be out-of-copyright, it is likely to be subject to restrictions on reproduction set by the artwork owner, often a public or private gallery, so permission is mandatory; visit the Design and Artists Copyright Society www.dacs.org.uk/ for further help.
Do I need permission to use an image from Google Earth?
Do I need permission if I use a Facebook screenshot?
Facebook screenshots may be used according to their guidelines but you will need prior written permission from Facebook.
Do I need permission if I use a Twitter quote?
Yes. The Twitter author must be contacted and their permission sought to reuse the material in the article. Please see twitter’s terms & conditions is at https://twitter.com/tos
Do I need permission to use an image from Flickr?
Yes. Flickr images may fall under a common usage license or may have all rights reserved.
Do I need permission to use an image from Yahoo?
If you are seeking permission to use any Yahoo! trademarks, logos, screen shots, copyrighted designs, or other brand features from the Yahoo! websites, please see: https://policies.yahoo.com/us/en/yahoo/permissions/requests/index.htm
Do I need permission to use a crown copyright image?
Please see www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/legal/copyright.htm for further guidance.
Do I need permission to use a Google N-Gram?
No, but please make sure that you cite Jean-Baptiste Michel, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva Presser Aiden, Adrian Veres, Matthew K. Gray, The Google Books Team, Joseph P. Pickett, Dale Hoiberg, Dan Clancy, Peter Norvig, Jon Orwant, Steven Pinker, Martin A. Nowak, and Erez Lieberman Aiden. (2010) Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science. Published Online Ahead of Print: 12/16/2010 DOI: 10.1126/science.1199644 www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2010/12/15/science.1199644
Do I need permission to use ClipArt?
Yes. The use of all Microsoft copyrighted content is subject to permission being given by Microsoft – see Microsoft’s Use of Microsoft Copyrighted Content. Commercial reuse (for example, in an academic journal) may be prohibited.
Do I need separate permission for an image that will appear on a journal cover?
Yes. Permission to use an image in your article does not necessarily extend to its use on the journal cover. Please ensure that you have specific permission to use an image on the cover, and let your production editor know of any attribution wording that is necessary.
Do I need permission to use an image of graffiti?
Graffiti is copyrightable by a graffiti artist if the graffiti was made with the consent, either contemporaneously or retrospectively, of the owner of the structure (building, wall, etc.) on which the graffiti was made. The graffiti artist may then assert copyright in the original and in any images made of the original, again, contemporaneously or retrospectively, and may insist on third parties seeking reuse permission for such images. Using a pseudonym appears to be common, and does not render assertion of copyright ownership void. Graffiti is not copyrightable by a graffiti artist if the graffiti was made without the consent of the owner of the structure. It is then considered vandalism, and any images could be presented as reportage. We suggest you consult us in this instance.
Do I need permission to reproduce a survey questionnaire or psychometric scale?
Yes, you should request formal written permission from the author/creator/designer, and/or the rightsholder – even where you are reproducing an extract. The rightsholder may apply a reproduction fee, and will certainly advise on the correct attribution statement and form of license.
May I describe and illustrate a patent in my article?
Guidance on describing and illustrating patents can be accessed at:
- uspto.gov – General Information Concerning Patents
- The Intellectual Property Office – guidelines on copying patent specifications
In all cases, it is essential proper acknowledgment and attribution is given to the patent owner.
What is the STM Agreement and how does it affect me with regard to seeking permissions?
Taylor & Francis is a member of the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM), and since 1979, signatory to the STM Permission Guidelines on the free and reciprocal exchange of text, figures, and tables.
The guidelines state that “requests for small portions of text and a limited number of illustrations should be granted on a gratis basis for signatory participants, and further describe a more automatic process which eliminates the need for requests to be transmitted (some signatories have chosen this route, others continue to request express permission requests). The guidelines apply to both book and journal content, and facilitate reproduction of further editions or in other media such as in online form”.
The guidelines and list of participating publishers is at www.stm-assoc.org/permissions-guidelines/
What if my article is to be published open access (OA)?
Firstly, please note that much of the same information on permissions applies to both OA and subscription articles. Whether you are publishing your article on an open access basis or not, you will need to seek permission to reuse any content in which copyright is owned by a third party (the “rightsholder”) in your article.
Authors of OA articles can choose to publish under a license with fewer restrictions on reuse, especially if the article is published under a Creative Commons license (please see Copyright and licenses and www.creativecommons.org for further information). However, an author does not have the right to license the reuse of any third-party copyright material contained within an OA article, and so it is essential to obtain appropriate permission from the relevant rightsholder.
When seeking permission to reproduce any kind of third-party material from rightsholders, please tell them the license you are likely to publish your work under, and the license conditions. For example:
[license] the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), [terms] which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The third party can grant you permission either to include their material under the same terms as the license or to include their material with reuse not permitted. You will then need to ensure that captions for any third-party material reflect the conditions under which permission has been granted. Follow the relevant step below to do this:
- If you have permission to include the material under the same terms as the license you are signing, please ensure that your caption notes the copyright holder (e.g., © Joe Bloggs).
- If you have permission to include the material within the article only (not under the same license terms as your work) please ensure that your caption notes the copyright holder (e.g., © Joe Bloggs. Reuse not permitted). Please submit copies of all permissions documentation and approval from third parties with your article, to ensure rapid publication of your work.
Further resources on using third-party material in your article
- This website gives more helpful information about finding copyright holders: http://tyler.hrc.utexas.edu/uk.cfm
- Copyright Law: Understanding Fair Use fact sheet from UK Copyright Service.
- Digital images, photographs and the internet from the Intellectual Property Office.
- Taylor & Francis editorial policies on using images or figures in your article.