Images and figures - Author Services

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Images and figures

Taylor & Francis Editorial Policies

Please read and follow this section of the Taylor & Francis Editorial Policies if you use images or figures in your article. These instructions apply to all Taylor & Francis Group journals but please note there are specific considerations for arts, humanities, and social sciences research and considerations for science, technology, and medicine research.

All content of this type should only be included in the article if it is relevant and valuable to the work reported. You should refrain from adding images and figures which are purely illustrative and do not add value to the scholarly work.

Consent from image subjects

Content (e.g. photographs, video or audio recordings, 3D models, illustrations, etc.) which can reveal the identity of patients, study participants, or study subjects can only be included if they (or parents/guardians if they are underage or considered unable to provide informed consent, or their next of kin if participants are deceased) have provided Consent to Publish.

Copyright permissions

Any images or figures which have been obtained from another published source, can only be re-used if you have obtained the appropriate permissions for re-use from the copyright owner. A statement to confirm this must be included within the figure legend. The original source of the image must be cited, even in cases where the image or figure is not under copyright, or if re-use is allowed under a licence which permits unrestricted re-use.

Read our guide to using third-party material in your article, including FAQs on requesting permission to reproduce work(s) under copyright.

Arts, humanities, and social sciences: specific considerations

Authors should be aware of any cultural sensitivities or restrictions associated with any images included in their manuscripts. For example, images of human remains or deceased humans is restricted in some cultures, and appropriate ethical guidelines should be adhered to by considering the views and approval processes of the affected communities.

In many indigenous communities, additional permissions may need to be sought from community leaders or an Elder. Authors working with indigenous communities are advised to consult appropriate guidelines for ethical research and publishing such as the AIATSIS Guidelines for ethical publishing , the National Inuit Strategy on Research and Interviewing Elders: Guidelines from the National Aboriginal Health Organization.

Authors conducting research on indigenous communities, using media tools are advised to consult appropriate guidelines such as the On Screen Protocols & Pathways: A Media Production Guide to Working With First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Communities, Cultures, Concepts & Stories.

Authors should include a statement to confirm that all necessary permissions have been obtained for the use and publication of such content (e.g. photographs, video or audio recordings, 3D models, illustrations, etc.). This includes human samples obtained from museum collections, where additional permission may need to be obtained for re-use and publication of the work.

Authors who include sensitive images in their submission – e.g. photographs, videos or models of human remains from indigenous communities, or pornographic images, explicit images, etc. should ensure that a clear statement is included in the article to provide a warning about the content.

Authors publishing work in the fields of conservation and heritage research in particular, are required to include details of image gathering methods and the technology used for creating any images, videos or models included in their submission. Authors submitting manuscripts which include 2D and 3D images of human remains should consider the implications of doing so because, as advised by the BABAO, “Once published, these may be edited and manipulated in unforeseen ways outside of the intended context. This can compromise the dignity and respect with which human remains should be treated.”

Science, technology and medicine: specific considerations

Experimental photographic images including microscopy, immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescence staining, electrophoretic gels and immunoblots should accurately reflect the results of the original image. Where images have been modified or enhanced in any way this must be stated with a full explanation within the manuscript as well as in the figure legend so as not to mislead readers about what the images show. Authors should be prepared to share the original, uncropped and unprocessed images with the journal editorial office upon request.

Please note that any modifications are only acceptable if these are minor in nature and have been applied to the whole image. Authors are required to include details of image gathering methods and details of processes for any modifications made to images, including the name of the software (with version number) used. Any modifications which can alter the scientific interpretation of the image are not allowed.

Clinical images such as X-rays and other types of medical imaging scans, should not include any identifying information about the patient. Details such as the patient name, ID number etc. should be blurred or cropped out prior to submission.

Science, technology and medicine: inappropriate image manipulation

Taylor & Francis will deal with cases of suspected manipulation according to COPE guidelines.

Any alterations to experimental photographic images (e.g.  microscopy, immunostaining, electrophoretic gels and immunoblots) which can mislead readers about the scientific interpretation is strictly prohibited.  Any enhancements or changes in contrast settings must be applied to the whole image, and copies of the original image prior to any such modifications (including retaining any background or non-specific staining or bands), must be made available to the journal editorial office upon request.

Regarding images of electrophoretic gels and immunoblots, where parts of the same gel or blot are spliced together, this should be indicated on the figures with a dividing line, making it clear where the image has been joined. Areas from different gels should not be spliced together. Where loading controls are present, these should always be included in the image; if spliced together, any modifications to the loading control and area of interest must be identical.

Images of immunoblots must not be overexposed and must provide a true representation of the results without masking the presence of other bands which could lead to a different interpretation of the results. Where applying high contrast settings to the immunoblot is unavoidable, authors must be prepared to share images of the full, uncropped blots showing the original image (including molecular weight markers), and any other versions of the images at multiple exposures. Authors should be prepared to share the original, uncropped and unprocessed images of immunoblots with the journal editorial office upon request.

Original data such as electrophoretic gels and immunoblots, should not be used as illustrations without an explanation. If original data are being used just to illustrate a point, this should be accompanied by a very clear statement in the figure legend to explain this including what is being demonstrated.

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