Image or data manipulation/fabrication
Where deliberate action has been taken to inappropriately manipulate or fabricate images or data. This is a serious form of misconduct as it is designed to mislead others and damages the integrity of the scholarly record with wide-reaching impact and long-term consequences.
Please read our policies on images and figures.
Authors are required to declare upon submission that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere, and as such the detection of a duplicate submission or publication is typically considered to be a deliberate act.
Authors who wish to submit secondary publications (e.g., an article translated into English), must seek permission from the publisher and copyright holder of the original article, and must inform the Editor of the receiving journal about the history of the original article. This is in accordance with ICMJE guidance.
Authors of secondary publications which have been translated into English must make it clear to readers that the article is a translated version and must include a citation to the original article.
Peer review manipulation
Where authors or agencies submitting on behalf of authors take deliberate steps to influence the peer review process in their favor, or where editors make decisions based on biased peer review reports.
Where there is evidence to suggest that the integrity of the peer review process has been compromised, necessary action will be taken to correct the scholarly record.
Where authors excessively and inappropriately self-cite or enter into prearrangements among author groups to inappropriately cite each other’s work or where editors or reviewers coerce authors to cite papers from their own previously published papers, or from specific journals, without due justification as to why those papers are necessary to cite.
Read the COPE guidance on citation manipulation.
Where research outside the approved ethics protocols has been conducted.
For example, where necessary permissions have not been obtained, or where researchers have not taken sufficient steps to protect the safety and privacy of human subjects, or the inadequate welfare of animals used in the research, or where specimens (e.g., fossils, archaeological specimens, human tissues, etc.) have not been ethically sourced.
Please read our research ethics guide.
Systematic manipulation of the publishing process
Taylor & Francis has a zero tolerance policy regarding the manipulation of the submission, peer review or publication process, including but not limited to:
Manipulation of special issues, supplements, conference proceedings or Article Collections
Paper mill activity (commercial organizations which facilitate the creation and sale of fraudulent manuscripts)
Unethical or undue influence over editorial decision-making
The sale of authorship on manuscripts
Upon being made aware of a concern, we will conduct a full investigation in accordance with this policy.
As per the COPE guidance, attempts to manipulate the process will be considered an indicator of research misconduct and a breach of publishing ethics standards. Where this activity results in the Editor and/or Publisher no longer being able to rely upon the validity and integrity of the article, we will take action to reject (pre-publication) or retract (post-publication) the article. Where we take this action, we reserve the right to inform an author’s institution, employer or funder.
Even if authors do not respond to the investigation or requests for information, we will take corrective action to protect the scholarly record as necessary.