Write and structure a journal article well | Writing your paper

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How to write and structure a journal article

What are the rules and guidance you should follow, when you begin to think about how to write and structure a journal article? Ruth First Prize winner Steven Rogers, PhD said the first thing is to be passionate about what you write.

” … Getting motivated to write is often very difficult, therefore, writing something you have very little passion for does not make it any easier…”

Steven Nabieu Rogers, Ruth First Prize winner.

Let’s go through some of the best advice that will help you pinpoint the features of a journal article, and how to structure it into a compelling research paper.

Get familiar with the journal you want to submit to

It is a good idea to choose your target journal before you start to write your paper. Then you can tailor your writing to the journal’s requirements and readership, to increase your chances of acceptance.

If you need more guidance on how to choose a journal, here is our guide to narrow your focus.

Once you’ve chosen your target journal, take the time to read a selection of articles already published – particularly focus on those that are relevant to your own research. This can help you get an understanding of what the editors may be looking for, then you can guide your writing efforts.

Best fit for your research

The journal’s aims and scope is also an important resource to refer back to as you write your paper – use it to make sure your article aligns with what the journal is trying to accomplish.

Keep your message focused

The next thing you need to consider when writing your article is your target audience. Are you writing for a more general audience or is your audience, experts in the same field as you? The journal you have chosen will give you more information on the type of audience that will read your work.

When you know your audience, focus on your main message to keep the attention of your readers. A lack of focus is a common problem and can get in the way of effective communication.

Stick to the point. The strongest journal articles usually have one point to make. They make that point powerfully, back it up with evidence, and position it within the field.

How to format and structure a journal article

The format and structure of a journal article is just as important as the content itself, it helps to clearly guide the reader through.

How do I format a journal article?

Individual journals will have their own specific formatting requirements, which you can find in the instructions for authors.

You can save time on formatting by downloading a template from our library of templates to apply to your article text. These templates are accepted by many of our journals. Also, a large number of our journals now offer format-free submission, which allows you to submit your paper without formatting your manuscript to meet that journal’s specific requirements.

General structure for writing an academic journal article

Title

The title of your article is one of the first indicators readers will get of your research and concepts. It should be concise, accurate, and informative. You should include your most relevant keywords in your title, but avoid including abbreviations and formulae.

    Keywords

    Keywords are an essential part of producing a journal article. When writing a journal article you must select keywords that you would like your article to rank for.

    • Keywords help potential readers to discover your article when conducting research using search engines.

    Abstract

    The purpose of your abstract is to express the key points of your research, clearly and concisely. An abstract must always be well considered, as it is the primary element of your work that readers will come across.

    An abstract should be a short paragraph (around 300 words) that summarizes the findings of your journal article. Ordinarily an abstract will be comprised of:

    • What your research is about

    • What methods have been used

    • What your main findings are

    Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgements can appear to be a small aspect of your journal article, however it is still important. This is where you acknowledge the individuals who do not qualify for co-authorship, but contributed to your article intellectually, financially, or in some other manner.

    When you acknowledge someone in your academic texts, it gives you more integrity as a writer as it shows that you are not claiming other academic’s ideas as your own intellectual property. It can also aid your readers in their own research journeys.

    Introduction

    An introduction is a pivotal part of the article writing process. An introduction not only introduces your topic and your stance on the topic, but it also (situates/contextualizes) your argument in the broader academic field.

    Main body

    The main body is where your main arguments and your evidence are located. Each paragraph will encapsulate a different notion and there will be clear linking between each paragraph.

    Conclusion

    Your conclusion should be an interpretation of your results, where you summarize all of the concepts that you introduced in the main body of the text in order of most to least important. No new concepts are to be introduced in this section.

    References and citations

    References and citations should be well balanced, current and relevant. Although every field is different, you should aim to cite references that are not more than 10 years old if possible. The studies you cite should be strongly related to your research question.

    Clarity is key

    Make your writing accessible by using clear language. Writing that is easy to read, is easier to understand too.

    You may want to write for a global audience – to have your research reach the widest readership. Make sure you write in a way that will be understood by any reader regardless of their field or whether English is their first language.

    Write your journal article with confidence, to give your reader certainty in your research. Make sure that you’ve described your methodology and approach; whilst it may seem obvious to you, it may not to your reader. And don’t forget to explain acronyms when they first appear.

    Engage your audience

    Go back to thinking about your audience; are they experts in your field who will easily follow technical language, or are they a lay audience who need the ideas presented in a simpler way?

    Be aware of the other literature in your field, and reference it

    Make sure to tell your reader how your article relates to key work that’s already published. This doesn’t mean you have to review every piece of previous relevant literature, but show how you are building on previous work to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    When you reference something, fully understand its relevance to your research so you can make it clear for your reader. Keep in mind that recent references highlight awareness of all the current developments in the literature that you are building on.

    This doesn’t mean you can’t include older references, just make sure it is clear why you’ve chosen to.

    How old can my references be?

    Your literature review should take into consideration the current state of the literature.

    There is no specific timeline to consider. But note that your subject area may be a factor. Your colleagues may also be able to guide your decision.

    Researcher’s view

    “It is important to demonstrate that you have a good grasp of the dominant debates and theories in your field. It is your ability to deploy both theoretical rigor and empirical evidence in your contribution that makes your article stand out. It is not good enough to challenge dominant theories, without offering alternative theoretical approaches or without deploying empirical evidence to validate your claims. Do not speculate, provide evidence…”

    Grasian Mkodzongi, Ruth First Prize Winner

    Be original

    Communicate your unique point of view to stand out. You may be building on a concept already in existence, but you still need to have something new to say. Make sure you say it convincingly, and fully understand and reference what has gone before.

    Editor’s view

    “It’s important that authors try to connect their ideas, their issue, and their topic to something that is existing… It may be to challenge that, or it may be to confirm it. It may be to re-examine it, or to indicate why… Whichever way they want to engage with it, it’s crucial that people take that time and thought to do that.”

    Professor Len Barton, Founding Editor of Disability and Society

    Top tips to get you started

    Now you know the features of a journal article and how to construct it. This video is an extra resource to use with this guide to help you know what to think about before you write your journal article.

    Expert help for your manuscript

    Taylor & Francis Editing Services offers a full range of pre-submission manuscript preparation services to help you improve the quality of your manuscript and submit with confidence.