Use Times New Roman font in size 12 with double-line spacing.
Margins should be at least 2.5cm (1 inch).
Use bold for your article title, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Indicate the abstract paragraph with a heading or by reducing the font size.
The instructions for authors for each journal will give specific guidelines on what’s required here, including whether it should be a structured abstract or graphical abstract, and any word limits.
If you need further guidance, learn more on how to write an effective abstract and title.
What is an abstract in a research paper?
This is your opportunity to ‘pitch’ your article to the journal editors, and later, its readers. Your abstract should focus on what your research is about, what methods have been used, and what you found out.
Keywords help readers find your article, so are vital for discoverability. If the journal instructions for authors don’t give a set number of keywords to provide, aim for five or six.
This will show you the different levels of the heading section in your article:
First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be in bold, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Second-level headings should be in bold italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Third-level headings should be in italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
Fourth-level headings should be in bold italics, at the beginning of a paragraph. The text follows immediately after a full stop (full point) or other punctuation mark.
Fifth-level headings should be in italics, at the beginning of a paragraph. The text follows immediately after a full stop (full point) or other punctuation mark.
Tables and figures
Do I need permission to reproduce a table?
It’s very important that you have been given permission to use any tables or figures you are reproducing from another source before you submit.
Data availability statement
If you’re submitting a data availability statement for your article, include it within the text of your manuscript, before your ‘References’ section. Remember to give it the heading ‘Data availability statement’ so that readers can easily find it.
Spelling and punctuation
Each journal will have a preferred method for spelling and punctuation. You’ll find this in the instructions for authors, available on the journal’s homepage on Taylor and Francis Online. Make sure you apply the spelling and punctuation style consistently throughout your article.
If you are preparing your manuscript in Microsoft Word and your article contains special characters, accents, or diacritics, we recommend you follow these steps:
European accents (Greek, Hebrew, or Cyrillic letters, or phonetic symbols): choose Times New Roman font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window and insert the character you require.
Asian languages (such as Sanskrit, Korean, Chinese, or Japanese): choose Arial Unicode font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window and insert the character you require.
Transliterated Arabic: choose either Times New Roman or Arial Unicode (unless the instructions for authors specify a particular font). For ayns and hamzas, choose Arial Unicode font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window. Type the Unicode hexes directly into the “Character code” box, using 02BF for ayn, and 02BE for hamza.
Running heads and received dates
These aren’t required when submitting a manuscript for review. They will be added during the production process if your article is accepted for publication.