Including tables in your article

Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text, but ensure you refer to each table in the text.

If tables are reproduced from another source, see our guidance on using third-party material.

Please read the following guidance to assist you in creating and submitting tables.

You will need to send your original, editable files (e.g. in Microsoft Word or Excel). This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article.

Non-editable files (e.g. JPEG or TIFF images, or images of text boxes in PowerPoint) are not suitable formats but can be included in addition to the editable files for reference. Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply.

Consider the size of each table and whether it will fit on a single journal page. If the table is cramped in a Microsoft Word document, where the default setting represents an A4 page (210 x 297 mm), it will be difficult to represent it clearly on a B5 journal page (176 x 250 mm). If this is the case, you could consider splitting the data into two or more tables.

When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised. Please note that color, shading, vertical rules, and other cell borders are not compatible with the final layout of the table in the published article. In most cases, all vertical lines and most horizontal lines (except at the head and foot of the table) will be removed. Look at other articles in the journal to see how tables are presented. Sample copies are available on our journals website at

Please use notes, italics, or bold text for emphasis with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance. Where superscript notes are used, the letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right. All statistical significance notes should be represented in the table, or deleted. Please also add notes explaining any acronyms or abbreviations in table titles or column headings.

When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes. This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible.

Please ensure that spelling, punctuation and reference style within tables are consistent with the rest of the text (when not reproduced from another source). The text in your table will be copy-edited to match the style of the journal.

If you are sending tables in a separate file, insert a note in the text indicating the preferred location for each table, e.g. [t]Table 1 near here[/t]. Tables will normally be placed at the top or bottom of a page in the journal.