Frequently asked questions

Data sharing

What is a data availability statement?

Data availability statements provide information on where and under what conditions the data directly supporting the publication can be accessed. The aim of such statements is to make data more findable and discoverable.

See our templates for data availability statements.

How should I submit my data availability statement?

Please include your data availability statement within the text of your manuscript, before your ‘References’ section. So that readers can easily find it, give it the heading ‘Data availability statement’.

Have you heard about the changes to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant application process?

Any new and renewed applications will need to include a data management and sharing plan.

Where can I deposit data?

There are a large number of data repositories you can choose from. Read more about the different data repositories you can use to deposit your data.

The journal I’m submitting to is double-anonymous. What repository should I use?

If you’re submitting your article to a journal with a double-anonymous peer review policy. There are a number of repositories which allow you to preserve your anonymity for double-anonymous review. Read our guidance on choosing a repository for further information and examples.

The policy states I need to share my data in a ‘FAIR aligned’ repository. What repository should I use?

The repository finder tool, developed by DataCite allows you to search for repositories which are certified and support the FAIR data principles. There’s also helpful advice about selecting a FAIR-aligned repository on the COPDESS website.

What data should I share?

The minimum data set is the data needed for independent verification of research results. With the basic data sharing policy, it’s up to you to determine the minimum data set to be shared.

Some authors might choose to share the full raw data, while others will select a manipulated sub-set of the data that underlies the analysis in the specific article to be published.

What is a DOI, reserved DOI or persistent identifier?

DOI stands for ‘digital object identifier’, and is one of a number of persistent identifiers that a data repository might use to give your data a permanent address.

Persistent identifiers are important because they remain constant, even if the actual location of a digital object moves. While a URL may change, a persistent identifier will continue to resolve to the new location.

Will the data I share be peer reviewed?

Currently, data will not be peer reviewed as part of our policies. The soundness of any data set associated with an article is solely the responsibility of the person who generated the data. However, the link to the data will be made available to peer reviewers upon request and they will be able to view the data, should they wish to do so.

How does data sharing work for a double-anonymous peer review process?

Where a journal applies a double-anonymous peer review process, a link should be shared only in instances where the relevant data repository can provide a review link that preserves anonymity, i.e., blinds the details of the author.

Read our guide on data sharing in journals which offer double anonymous peer review and guidance on choosing a repository for information on how to preserve your anonymity for double anonymous peer review.

What if I can’t or don’t want to share my data?

This depends on the data policy of the journal you’re submitting to. The basic data sharing policy encourages data sharing, whereas according to the open and fully FAIR data sharing policy, authors must deposit their data.

Read the full details for every Taylor & Francis data sharing policy.

What should I do if I have concerns about sharing my data?

All our policies allow exceptions where data sharing violates protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns. If you have concerns about sharing your data, please contact us at [email protected], stipulating the journal you wish to submit to and a summary of your concerns.

I need to limit access to my data in a repository. How can I do this?

There are a number of generalist repositories which allow you to limit access to your data, whether permanently or following an embargo period.

Read our guidance on choosing a repository for further information and examples.

At what point during submission do I need to deposit my data set?

Ideally, you should deposit your data prior to submission so that during submission you can provide the persistent identifier and an accurate data availability statement. Many repositories, and all recognized generalist repositories, will allow you to deposit your data without making it immediately visible to the public. Your data will sit in a repository until the paper associated with it is published, when it will then be released.

Read our guidance on choosing a repository for information on how to limit access to your data in a repository.

What does it mean for a data set to be associated with my paper?

If you are choosing to share data or are depositing your data in a repository to comply with a journal or funder policy, there is a data set associated with your paper. When submitting your article for consideration, please provide the persistent identifier for your data set when prompted to do so.

Will my article be rejected if I don’t deposit data when a data sharing policy applies?

Most of our journals currently apply a basic data sharing policy that gives authors an opportunity to share data but does not mandate open data. Where a journal applies a more progressive data sharing policy, authors are expected to comply with this policy or risk rejection should they refuse to comply.

Read our introduction to data sharing ethics for more details about when you should avoid sharing your data.

What counts as violating protection of human subjects or other valid subject privacy concerns?

Research involving information and/or samples from human participants must ensure that data is managed and shared in such a way as to safeguard the confidentiality and anonymity of participants. This must also be consistent with the terms of consent signed by participants.

Additional steps may need to be taken before such data can be shared, and in some instances, data cannot be shared publicly due to risk of violating privacy. More information about protection of human subjects may be provided via ethics committees that are relevant for your location or subject area. See our introduction to data sharing ethics.

Who is responsible for the integrity of the materials uploaded?

As stated in the data sharing policy information listed in the journal’s instructions for authors, responsibility for the soundness of the research data rests solely with the individual/group that produced the data.

If I deposit my data, can I remove it at a later date?

There may be reasons why data should be removed after having been published. You might have data that can be held legally for a specific period before you must destroy it, or errors might be detected, to name just a couple of cases.

Data repositories have established practices for updating versions of data if you need to correct them, and for tagging metadata and landing pages for data sets that have been removed. Please check the website of your chosen repository for further information.

How will my data be linked to my paper?

By citing your data set, providing the persistent identifier and including a data availability statement, you can ensure that your paper links to the data set underlying your analysis. Similarly, it is important that your data links back to your paper. This will improve the usability of your data and should increase the discoverability of your paper and potentially even increase citations.

In some cases, the metadata associated with your data set will be updated with the article DOI upon its publication, but this is not always the case. We highly encourage authors to update the information supplied to their data repository with the article DOI as soon as they have it. 

My data is deposited in ScholeXplorer, can I link this to my article?

Taylor & Francis Online supports ScholeXplorer data linking helping you to establish a permanent link between your published article and its associated data. If you deposit your data in a ScholeXplorer recognized repository a link to your data will automatically appear on Taylor & Francis Online when your associated article is published.

Read our guide on how you can enhance your article with supplemental material.

What is metadata and what information should go into it?

Metadata is a layer of information that is associated with an object such as your published paper or a data set you have deposited. This data can contain descriptive information in addition to administrative and structural information.

Typical information that your data set should have associated with it are: the date it was created, file type and format, creator of the data, key words, location, a description of the data and how it was generated, relationships to other digital objects such as the DOI of the article in which the data is described and analyzed, version information, relationships to other digital objects, and other information that might be relevant to your subject area.

For further information about metadata, and why and how rich metadata can improve the quality of your data, see the FAIR Data Principles.

Which journals adopt the basic policy?

Many of our journals adopt the basic data sharing policy. We encourage you to check the Instructions for Authors of the journal you’re submitting to for the most up to date information.

How can I check whether I need to share data?

You’ll need to check the Instructions for Authors of the journal you’re submitting to which will specify the data policy for the journal, and how you’ll need to handle the data. If there is no data policy specified, then the journal does not have a data policy.

Many funders have policies around data sharing too, so make sure you check your funder’s policy, when applicable. You can check research funders’ open access and data policies using the Sherpa-Juliet tool. If the data sharing policy for the funder and journal differ, you’ll need to follow the more progressive policy, i.e. the policy that encourages a greater level of data sharing.

I have a question relating to data sharing, who can I get in touch with?

If you have a question relating to sharing data that you can’t find the answer to here, please contact: [email protected].

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Check out our glossary page for definitions of key publishing terms.