Publishing Open Access - What is Open Access? | Author Services

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Publishing your research open access

About this topic

Find out why you should consider publishing your journal articles open access (OA). We look at the range of OA opportunities available to help you maximize the reach and impact of your research. This page also includes all the details you need to publish open access with Taylor & Francis and meet any requirements of your research funder.

What is open access?

Open access makes published academic research freely and permanently available online. Anyone, anywhere can read and build upon this research.

In 2002, the Budapest Open Access Initiative set out the potential benefits of unrestricted access to scholarly content:

“accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.”

The number of authors choosing to publish open access has surged in recent years, seeing it as an opportunity to broaden the impact of their work. Many funders and institutions now also require open access publication of research. However, there is still much variation in the uptake of open access between geographical regions and areas of academic study.

Taylor & Francis is one of the world’s largest publishers of open access research. If you choose to publish with us, there is a wide range of open access options available to you. This means you can comply with any funder requirements and ensure your research makes a difference.

Open access and reuse rights

Open access isn’t just about others being able to read your research without barriers. OA also gives researchers greater opportunity to build upon the work of others. Most OA articles have a Creative Commons license which explains how others can use them. In some cases, it may give complete freedom to reuse and repurpose the published work. Regardless, it’s always necessary to acknowledge the original author.

At Taylor & Francis, we offer a range of Creative Commons licensing options, so you can find the right fit for your research. See our guide to copyright licenses for more information.

What is open research?

You may also have heard the term ‘open research’. Open access is one part of this larger drive for more openness in scholarly communication. Open research, also called ‘open science’ or ‘open scholarship’, looks beyond the peer-reviewed journal article or book. There are many other outputs of the research cycle that are useful for fellow academics who want to understand and build upon your work. This can include research data, code, and lab notes. Find out how Taylor & Francis can help you achieve your open research aims.

What's the difference between 'free access' and 'open access'?

On journal websites you may come across some articles labelled ‘free access’. They’re identified on Taylor & Francis Online by this icon:

Free access icon

These are articles in subscription journals which are available for non-subscribers to read. Sometimes these are pages in the journal that aren’t full research articles, including editorials, letters, or obituaries. Or the free access may be for promotional reasons, such as making articles which are part of a press campaign more widely available. The main differences between these free access articles and those published open access are:

  • Reuse: Unlike the final versions of subscription articles, open access articles will always have a license which allows reuse of the work by third parties.
  • Time limit: Free access articles might only be accessible to non-subscribers for a set period. Open access papers are guaranteed to be available for anyone to read, anywhere, forever.

What are the benefits of open access publishing?

OA is great for readers because it gives them immediate access to the latest research. But what are the advantages of publishing open access to you, the author?

Increase the visibility and readership of your research

Research published open access is available to anyone across the globe, at any time. Greater visibility can result in increased readership and citations of your research. Both can help your career and funding prospects.

Make an impact beyond the academy

There’s increasing pressure on researchers to show the societal impact of their research. Open access can help your work reach new readers, beyond those with easy access to a research library. Publishing OA can help policymakers, non-government agencies, the media, educators, and practitioners put your research into action.

Freely share your work

With OA, you’re free to share your research around the world with no restrictions or paywall.

Comply with funder mandates

An increasing number of authors are required to publish OA by their funder, institution, or employer. Find out about major funder mandates and policies around open access.

Why publish your research open access with Taylor & Francis?

In 2003, Taylor & Francis first issued guidance to authors about sharing their work via what has become known as “green open access” or “author self-archiving”. Today, we publish over 250 full open access journals. We also publish over 2,300 subscription journals with an open access option, also known as hybrid journals. Researchers can publish open access with Taylor & Francis across multiple imprints and in a wide variety of subject areas, from archaeology to zoology.

We also offer an OA publishing option for book authors. There are currently over 300 book titles freely available online.

Taylor & Francis Group is leading the way in open access. We are partnering with academic institutions and consortia around the world to make funding available for researchers to publish OA.

Some of the benefits of publishing open access with us include:

Researcher open access stories

Find out how publishing open access with Taylor & Francis has supported research impact for these authors:

How do I submit my research to Taylor & Francis for open access publication?

  1. The first stage is to choose which specific journal you’d like to submit your manuscript to. Follow our guide to find the most suitable publication for your research. You can select either a full open access journal or an Open Select (hybrid) journal, which publishes both OA and subscription articles. See the full range of open access publishing options below.
  2. Then, read your chosen journal’s Instructions for Authors in full. This will outline everything you need to do to submit your article, including any particular formatting requirements.
  3. Finally, on Taylor & Francis Online look out for the green ‘Submit an article’ button to start the submission process.

Open access publishing options

At Taylor & Francis we offer choice in the route to publishing open access. You can either choose to publish “gold” OA or make your article available via “green” OA options.

Gold open access

Keyboard with Padlock

Gold OA means that the final published version of your article (or Version of Record) is permanently and freely available online for anyone, anywhere to read. An article publishing charge (APC) is usually applicable if you publish gold OA.

With gold open access you can:

There are many different options for publishing gold OA with Taylor & Francis:

Publish in full open access journals

Taylor & Francis Open logoTaylor & Francis Open and Routledge Open

Every new article in our Open journals is published gold OA. Some of these journals have always published exclusively open access articles, while others are part of our ongoing program of converting subscription journals to full OA. The majority of these journals use Creative Commons licenses. Browse our growing list of Open journals.

 

Cogent OA

Cogent is an open-access publisher of scholarly research, committed to offering a truly author-centered service. Our aim is to help researchers share their ideas and discoveries as widely and effectively as possible. Our program includes the Cogent Series of broad-scope, interconnected journals. These focus on the key disciplines in science, social science, and the arts. Find out more on the Cogent OA website.

 

Dove Medical Press

Dove Press publishes primarily in the Health Sciences, with some content in Science and Technology. Since its foundation in 2003, Dove has built up a strong portfolio of high-quality, peer-reviewed open access journals. Over 80 of the titles are indexed in Clarivate’s Web of Science and more than 60 in PubMed. Find out more on the Dove Press website.

 

 

Taylor & Francis Open Select and Routledge Open Select

Open Select gives you the option to make an article gold OA in one of our 2,300 subscription-based journals. This option is also known as “hybrid open access”.Routledge Open Select logo

This initiative currently covers most titles under the Routledge and Taylor & Francis imprints. It offers you a huge choice of subjects and disciplines, ranging across the sciences, social sciences, medicine, technology, engineering, humanities, and arts.

How do I know if a journal is Open Select?

Look out for this indicator at the top of the journal home page on Taylor & Francis Online. Or, use our open access options finder.

Publish open access in this journal

What do I need to do to publish my article OA in an Open Select journal?

Once you have submitted your paper it will go through rigorous peer review as normal. If the journal accepts it, you’ll receive an email inviting you to select a publishing license. This will include the option to make your article gold open access. It usually requires the payment of an APC.

Do I have to pay an APC to publish in an Open Select journal?

No. If you don’t pay the APC, your work will be published as a standard article, available to journal subscribers. In that case, you can still make your work open access using the green OA route.

Can I make my article gold OA if it has already been published in a subscription journal?

Yes, if your work has been published as a standard article in an Open Select (hybrid) journal, you can choose to make it gold open access later:

  1. Email our OA Support Team at apc@tandf.co.uk explaining that you wish to make your article open access. Please include the title and Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of your article.
  2. You will receive an invoice for the APC to make your article open access, along with a new author publishing agreement to sign.
  3. Your article will then be made OA so that it’s permanently available for anyone to read, anywhere.

Standard APCs apply if you are making your article OA retrospectively. Discounts may be available if your institution has an OA membership or is part of an OA agreement.

Creative Commons Licenses

When you publish gold open access with Taylor & Francis we ask you to sign a publishing agreement. This gives us the non-exclusive right to publish the Version of Record of your article. You, the author, retain copyright. The agreement includes the Creative Commons license of your choice. This dictates what others can do with your article once it’s published.

Attribution (CC BY)

Others can distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. We offer this license on our full Open and our hybrid Open Select journals (when publishing on a gold OA basis). All Cogent OA articles are published CC BY and Dove Medical Press offers the CC BY license to authors whose articles are funded by the organizations listed on the Dove website.

Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

Others can remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially. Although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms. We offer this license on our full Open journals.

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND)

Others can download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially. We offer this license on our hybrid Open Select journals (when publishing on a gold OA basis) and on Dove Medical Press journals.

Green Open Access

Green OA, also known as self-archiving, is when you post an earlier version of your manuscript in repositories and online. This enables you to share your article and comply with most funder mandates, without having to pay an APC.

How does green open access work?

Authors publishing in any Taylor & Francis Group journal can take advantage of the green open access route. This includes depositing a version of your article in an institutional or subject repository, as well as posting it on your blog or social media profile. Please note that an embargo period usually applies. The Sharing your open access research section below outlines the different versions of your article and how you can share them.

 

Zero-embargo green open access for Archives and Library & Information Science (LIS) journals

Researchers publishing in an LIS or Archives journal can take advantage of the green open access route immediately upon publication, without needing to observe an embargo period. This means authors can post a version of their article to any subject or institutional repository straight away. Find out more.

For details about green OA embargo periods and license options for all Taylor & Francis and Routledge journals, visit the open access options finder.

Open access options finder

All the information on OA publishing options for each Taylor & Francis, Routledge, and Cogent journal is available in our OA options finder. You can use this page to check:

  • Which of our journals offer gold open access.
  • What the current article publishing charge (APC) is on specific journals.
  • What the green OA embargo periods are on our journals.
  • Which licenses you can publish under.

Sharing your open access research

By the time your article is published in a Taylor & Francis journal, several versions of your work will exist, from the different stages of the writing and publishing process. Before sharing your article, it is important to understand the options available for these different versions.

A guide to sharing different versions of your article

The National Information Standards Organization, in partnership with the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, has defined the following versions:

Version of Record (VoR)

 

“A fixed version of a journal article that has been made available by … a publisher by formally and exclusively declaring the article ‘published’.”

What is it?

This is the final, definitive, citable version of your paper. It has been copy-edited, typeset, had metadata applied, and has been allocated a DOI. This is the version published on Taylor & Francis Online.

The VoR includes any “early release” article that is formally identified as being published even before the compilation of a volume issue and assignment of associated metadata, as long as it is citable via some permanent identifier(s).

How can I share it?

If you have chosen to publish your article gold open access, you can share this final version however you wish. This includes depositing it in repositories and sharing it online.

Please do not share a PDF of the VoR if you have not published your article gold open access. Instead, you will need to use either your Author’s Original Manuscript (AOM) or Accepted Manuscript (AM). We recommend that you include a link to the VoR from anywhere you post an earlier version of your article.

Accepted Manuscript (AM)

“The version of a journal article that has been accepted for publication in a journal.”

What is it?

This version is your paper after peer review, when it has been revised and accepted for publication by the journal editor. When you receive the acceptance email from the Editorial Office, keep a copy of your AM for any future posting.

How can I share it?

As a Taylor & Francis author, you can post your AM on your personal website any time after publication. This includes posting to Facebook, Google groups, and LinkedIn, plus linking from Twitter.

Embargoes apply if you are posting the AM to an institutional or subject repository, or to a scholarly collaboration network such as ResearchGate, Mendeley, or Academia.edu. The open access options finder lists the embargo periods for all Taylor & Francis and Routledge journals.

To encourage citation of your work (and to be able to monitor and understand who is reading it using article metrics), we recommend that you insert a link from your posted AM to the published article on Taylor & Francis Online with the following text:

“This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in [Journal Title] on [Date of Publication], available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/[Article DOI].”

Author’s Original Manuscript (AOM)

“Any version of a journal article that is considered by the author to be of sufficient quality to be submitted for formal peer review.”

What is it?

The AOM is your original manuscript (sometimes called a “preprint”) before you submitted it to a journal for peer review.

How can I share it?

You can share this as much as you like. If you post it anywhere, including on a scholarly collaboration network, we recommend you use an amended version of the wording below. This will encourage usage and citation of your final, published article (the VoR):

“This is the Author’s Original Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in [Journal Title] on [Date of Publication], available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/[Article DOI].”

Institutional repositories

A repository is a digital platform used to host and preserve scholarly outputs. If you’re based at a research institution, you’re probably required to place a version of your article in their repository. If your article has been published gold open access in a Taylor & Francis journal you can deposit a PDF of the VoR in the repository as soon as it’s published.

However, if you choose not to publish gold open access then you’ll need to archive a copy of the AOM or the AM. For most Taylor & Francis journals there is an embargo period which begins when the final version of your article is published online. During this embargo period the AM should be a closed deposit.

What’s a “closed deposit”?

This is when you post your AM to your institutional repository so that it’s available for those within your institutional network to access. You (or repository staff) can make this an open deposit after the relevant embargo period has passed. AMs can be posted at any point to repositories as closed deposits.

What’s an “open deposit”?

This is when you post your AM to your institutional repository so it’s freely available for anyone to access. All authors should respect embargo periods before making AMs available as an open deposit. You can check the embargo period on all journals in the open access options finder.

Open access and quality

One of the concerns sometimes raised about OA is that journals might be unreliable. There is a fear that peer review, the process which underpins research integrity, might be missing from open access publishing. While you should be aware there are some open access journals which do not follow the highest standards, most OA titles provide a trustworthy service for authors and readers.

The Taylor & Francis commitment to peer review quality

Taylor & Francis Group journals provide researchers with rigorous, constructive, and timely peer review for all manuscripts. This is regardless of whether they intend to publish open access. Anyone reading or publishing open access with Taylor & Francis can be reassured that the same high standards apply as in traditional publishing models.

Taylor & Francis is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and a publisher member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Both organizations uphold the highest standards of open access publishing.

      

Think. Check. Submit.

We support Think. Check. Submit., an initiative launched by a coalition of publishers and industry organizations. It provides the tools to help you choose the right journal for your work.

There are some open access journals which do not provide the quality assurance and services that would be delivered by a reputable journal. For example, they may not ensure thorough peer review and editor feedback or carry out ethics and integrity checks. There are also some fraudulent journals which trade off existing society or journal names. This means that authors may discover too late that their research hasn’t appeared in the title they were expecting.

You should therefore make sure that you submit your work to a journal you can trust.

By using the checklist provided on the Think. Check. Submit. website, you can make an informed choice before sending your articles for review.

The Think. Check. Submit. checklist includes ways to check the credentials of any title and the society or publisher behind it. It isn’t a definitive list of “approved” titles, but it will help make sure your research has maximum impact.

Open access fees and funding

When publishing gold OA, researchers or their institutions or funders often need to pay an article publishing charge (APC). However, there are many funding options available to help authors cover these charges.

How much does it cost to publish my research open access?

If you choose to make the final version of your article open access (gold OA) there will often be an associated article publishing charge (APC). APCs vary by journal and may depend on the type of article you’ve written.

Check the instructions for authors on your chosen journal’s web page to confirm the current APC. Please note that these charges are exclusive of tax. You can also find the standard APC for any Taylor & Francis journal by using our Article Publishing Charge Finder.

The charge for your article may differ from the standard APC if your institution or research funder has an open access publishing agreement or an open access membership with Taylor & Francis. There are also discounts and waivers for researchers in developing countries when they publish in fully open journals. The sections below outline many of the ways you can get open access publishing support.

Alternatively, you may choose to make your work open via the green OA route. This enables you to share your article and comply with most funder mandates, without having to pay an APC.

Look up the standard APC for any Taylor & Francis journal by using our Article Publishing Charge Finder. Select your chosen journal, type of article, and your country to find the open access APC list price.

Common sources of funding support for open access publishing include:

Your national or international funding body

Many funders will allow you to use research grants to pay open access APCs for books and journals. See our guide to funder OA policies to see whether your funder covers charges associated with publishing open access.

Open access publishing agreements

We’re partnering with groups of institutions around the world to help researchers publish gold OA in their chosen journals. These consortia agreements can mean that authors benefit from reduced APCs, or that they are able to publish OA at no cost to themselves. Find out if you’re eligible for this open access support.

Institutional funds and open access memberships

If your institution isn’t included in one of our OA agreements, it may have a central fund to support researchers who want to publish open access. Many institutions also hold an open access membership with Taylor & Francis Group. Researchers based at these institutions may be eligible to publish gold open access in Taylor & Francis Group journals at no cost to themselves. View a list of current members.

Discounts and waivers for researchers in developing countries

Taylor & Francis is committed to bringing research by scholars in emerging nations to the attention of the global academic community. We also want to make the option to publish in open access journals available to as many researchers as possible.

To help achieve this, we offer waivers and discounts on the APCs required to publish in many full open access journals (Taylor & Francis Open or Routledge Open):

  • Corresponding authors with primary affiliations based in countries defined by the World Bank as Low-Income Economies can apply for a 100% APC waiver, when they publish in a full open access journal.
  • Corresponding authors with primary affiliations based in countries defined by the World Bank as Lower-Middle-Income Economies can apply for a 50% discount on the normal APC, when they publish in a full open access journal.
  • Corresponding authors with primary affiliations based in one of the EIFL (Electronic Information for Libraries) network countries may be eligible for a 100% or 50% discount on the normal APC. For more information, including the list of countries and participating journals, please visit our EIFL page.

Discretionary waivers: We will consider all requests for discretionary APC waivers, to publish in full open access journals, by researchers who aren’t eligible for the policies above.

How to request an APC discount or waiver

Please note that you must make waiver requests when you first submit your manuscript. It will not be possible to process requests made on any subsequent revisions. Find out more. If you have any questions, please contact us: apc@tandf.co.uk

 

Learn more about the ways we’re supporting researchers in developing countries

Helping you achieve your open research aims

Open research is a movement to open up all the outputs of scholarly activity. This includes elements such as data, computer code, and citations.

At Taylor & Francis we want to bring these outputs to the surface. Visibility will enrich the reading experience and means that results can be verified and reproduced. Open research also ensures that researchers are given credit for all their valuable work.

Here are some of the ways Taylor & Francis is supporting the open research goals of our authors:

Data sets

It is increasingly common for researchers to make their research data open. In fact, some funders are now making data sharing a requirement.

Sharing data publicly improves the robustness of the research process. It supports validation, research transparency, reproducibility and replicability of results. Depositing data in a repository mints a permanent identifier, such as a DOI. This allows authors and others to cite the data set and researchers to get appropriate credit for their work.

For more details about the benefits of data sharing and the requirements of Taylor & Francis journals, read our guide to data sharing.

Code

Code Ocean screenshotWe’re partnering with Code Ocean to help take Taylor & Francis articles to the next level. We’re aiming to improve the openness and transparency of the underlying code and data associated with articles.

Code Ocean allows readers to access code and data directly within an article. They can also run everything in the cloud, without downloading anything to their local computers. Find out more.

Citations

I4OC logoTaylor & Francis is part of the Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC), a collaboration between publishers, researchers, and organizations. Its aim is to promote access to data on citations that is structured, separable and open.

Open Science Badges

3 open science badges

Researchers submitting to journals that support this Center for Open Science (COS) initiative have the opportunity to apply for one or more of the Open Science Badges during submission. If accepted, the badge(s) will be displayed within the html and pdf versions of your article on Taylor & Francis Online.

The Badges program was designed by the COS to acknowledge open science practices. They are offered as incentives for researchers to share data, materials, or to preregister, and are a signal to the reader that the content of the study has been made available in perpetuity.

Open research podcast episode

Open researchTo find out more about what open research is and how it can benefit you and your work, listen to our podcast episode, ‘Making your research open’. With contributions from open research experts, we examine the different ways scholarly outputs can be made open and the support that’s available for researchers to do this.

Other episodes in this podcast series, 15 minutes to develop your research career, include, Getting published for the first timePublic engagement in research; and The unspoken challenges of research life.

Publishing open access: a guide for authors

Download a copy of our handy open access guide for authors.

Find out about the different routes to making your work open access, the benefits of doing so, and how you can achieve your open access goals with Taylor & Francis Group journals.

 

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Keep up to date with open access developments

Open access is fast-moving, with new opportunities and requirements appearing regularly. Taylor & Francis is committed to being at the forefront of these changes, providing increasing choice for researchers and funders. Make sure you’re the first to hear about the latest developments by registering for our Open Access Bulletin.